Sudo is a command commonly used in shells or “command line”, mostly on UNIX or Linux based systems. The command sudo stands for superuser do. It allows a system administrators to perform commands that only administrators are permitted to access or use.
sudo allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified by the security policy.– Sudo MAN Page
This system usually prevents other unauthorized users from intentionally and unintentionally changing, deleting or adding settings or files. Sudo also allows you to run programs with the security privileges of a superuser/admin and give other users abilities to run some commands.